Coursework Part 5: Project 2: Building A Response: Colour Palettes and Paper Manipulations

 Colour Palettes

I painted six proportional colour palettes inspired by drawings from Project 1. I have shown them next to their relevant drawing in an earlier article, but here they are all together. They have quite different associations in my mind (left to right, top, then bottom):- soft, muted Spring-like; Japanese, masculine; Summer deckchairs; flower garden; romantic eveningwear; and this final palette reminds me of a Paul Smith striped shirt or scarf.

My husband, (being a software engineer), wondered if there was a programme that could carry out this analysis (to produce a proportional colour palette) automatically. He found TinEye Labs Color Extraction, which I used to analyse Drawing #6 (the collage). The software limits the palette to the most featured nine colours and it can be set to ignore the external and internal backgrounds. (Here it is ignoring the external background, but has been unable to judge the edge of the image because the colour differentiation is small). It has not been 100% accurate, but it is a quick way of generating a proportional palette from an image.

TinEye Labs - Color Extraction Lab


The artists I researched for this Project, may inform my work in the following ways:-

  • drawing first hand from source materials and using drawing for further development
  • making representational drawings, that can be simplified into more abstract forms
  • considering the associations that a chosen colour palette may evoke
  • use of layering
  • making a piece of work from smaller units, that are combined
  • the inclusion of geometric or other unexpected elements with organic forms

Developing Textile Concepts

The first task was to review and evaluate my drawings to see which ones I would like to develop.

I liked the linear marks in Drawings #12 and #13 and particularly liked the colour palette of #13.

I felt that the layered aspect of Drawing #11 had potential for further development.

The mixed marks found in two areas of the largest drawing, #14,  were interesting, and I could see them translated into stitch and surface texture.

The suggested textures in drawings #15, #17, #10 and #8 were possible candidates for taking forwards. The puckered nature of the chard leaf could work well as a textile, for example.

At this stage, I opted to use papers with the most appropriate textures that I could muster, and re-introduce colour at a later stage in the development process.

Paper Manipulations #1 and #2, inspired by plum tree Drawing #12

#1 Japanese rice paper with folds

#2 black card and copier paper with areas removed, layered, one sheet in reverse

I felt that both of these manipulations represented the stark lines of the original drawing well. The folded piece would take stitch well, but if worked on textile, I think it would need to be pre-stiffened to hold the creases well, or maybe pinned in position with stitch to hold the creases in place. Having layering in mind from my research into Leisa Rich’s work, I tried two of the paper cuts layered and thought that it worked well, and could even have more layers added with different textures included.

Paper Manipulations #3 – #5, inspired by the blossom in Drawing #13

#3 punched and torn tissue paper, kitchen towel and copier paper

#4 machine sewn pierced holes on tracing paper (no thread used, reverse of piece shown)

#5 folded and cut tracing paper

The tiny fragments of paper in #3 could work in textiles, and would need gluing or sewing into position, or could be machine sewn between layers of tulle netting or translucent fabric, or soluble fabric. Both the punched dots and paper left after punching had a light and airy feel to them; the torn shreds were feathery and ephemeral, so represented the ‘blossom’ marks in the drawing quite well.

The machine sewn holes were not, I felt, a success. The oil from the needle marked the paper and the texture looked and felt ‘gritty’ and too fine – maybe useful in another context.

#5 was the most successful texture, with random ‘petals’ cut into the folded paper, these could be opened out and cast interesting shadows and could also be used in a layered construction.

I made a two evaluative drawings of #5 and decided to try two more paper manipulations with a more formal composition: one folded into rectangles with a larger five-petalled flower, and one with rows of large and small petal shapes.

#6 folded and cut tissue paper

#7 as above

The tissue paper gave more ‘drape’ to the sample than using tracing paper, and the larger petals of #6 gave more movement to the ‘petals’, paired with larger holes, which might allow layering options. I felt that this sample could be successfully translated to fabrics – either a fine silk or chiffon (for accessories such as scarves and shawls, wedding veil, or evening tops); or made in felt for a completely different weight (maybe for a bag, or home decor feature such as a lamp shade).

Paper and Plastic Manipulations #8 – #10, inspired by Drawing #15

#8 Plastic from a mailing sack, stretched and sewn

#9 Plastic as above, melted over a candle

#10 Scrunched tissue paper (also tried wet – sample not shown)

The plastic gave the result most like the marks in the drawing of the chard leaf, particularly the melted version. Stitch can be added to accentuate the ruching. I made two evaluative drawings of #10, looking at the highlights and lowlights, in felt pens (made looking at the plastic, not at the drawing), then in ink and masking fluid.

I think that this texture (as seen in the plastic manipulation), and as a print like the drawing, has potential as a fashion textile, or perhaps in performance costume where a dramatic effect is called for (the villain’s outfit). I feel that it would work in any combination of a bold colour (red, green, blue, white) with white or black marks. The puffy, 3-D version could be self coloured. The ‘blind’ felt pen drawing, or a detail of it, could be made into a tufted rug.

Plastic and Paper Manipulations #11 – 15, inspired by tulip Drawings #8 and #10

#11 wooden tool embossing on glossy photographic paper

#12 various tools embossing on glossy photographic paper

#13 various tools embossing on wax coated copier paper

#14 cuts made in plastic (from a carrier bag)

#15 embossing on plastic

Trying to capture the linear marks from the source drawings: the embossing on both types of paper worked well, and I even preferred the reverse (repoussé) effect. The fine regular slits in plastic were a good match for the felt pen lines in one of the drawings. The irregular, short cuts made little impact. Embossing the plastic made small drag marks in the material, as well as the lines, which gave an interesting texture, but not like that of the drawings. The red plastic had a very tulip-like colour and texture, giving associations with sexuality and ‘danger’. I can imagine punk-style fashion made using this material. Layering would again be possible. The embossed paper and card should take stitch well and could be an interesting background texture: it reminded me of abstract landscapes or wood grain.

Paper Manipulations #16 – 18, inspired by the stitch-on-photograph Drawing #17

#16 long cuts in copier paper, with some areas removed

#17 short cuts in thin card, one side knotted, one side dipped in melted wax

#18 fine, long cuts in thin card, folded in a spiral at base and glued

The copier paper version was drapeable and not very much like the drawing in ‘feel’, apart from the line directions

#17 had more body, and the knotted ends reminded me of the stamen in the catkin. The waxed side had the waxy, succulent look of the white part of the catkin.

#18 was my favourite: it was like a stiff natural brush, but the tips of the ‘bristles’ curled over and made for a texture full of movement and interest. Thinking of how this could be further developed: finding a textile or thread with similar properties, and making small areas of this texture against a plainer background could work well. It reminded me somewhat of Wanshu Li‘s beautiful jewellery that I saw at the Edinburgh Degree Show last year.

I made three drawings of aspects of the three paper manipulations. The drawing of #17 (white on grey) reminded me of frayed fabric; while the drawing of #18 (yellow on brown) made me think of batik marks or slashing, or loose, large stitches. The white drawing feels limp and languid, feather-like and wispy (lines like this could possibly be printed onto fabric), while the yellow marks feel more vibrant, lively and energetic.

Paper Manipulations #19 – 20, inspired by Drawing #14 (mixed media distant garden foliage).

#19 – sanding, cuts, gouges and piercing using various tools on watercolour paper

#20 – scrunched tissue paper and wool balls on sandpaper

I looked at two small areas of the drawing, using a viewfinder, imitating ‘marks’ in the first piece and texture in the second. The cuts and gouges gave interesting, fairly subtle textures, the pierced holes were more interesting on the reverse, where little mounds formed around the holes. These subtle processes might be useful for transforming a piece with a simple, monotone palette to create areas of different ‘perspective’ or focus.

I liked the variations in texture and the colour palette in #20. I think it could take some stitch to add further textures. I felt that the asymmetrical appearance and blank, ‘quiet’ areas worked well in representing the textures found in the drawing.

Drawings of the paper manipulations: of #20 using graphite, eraser marks, chalks and carved-sponge-printed gesso; of #19 using various felt pens and markers.

The piece with many small marks would convert to textile and stitch quite well, with overlapping marks, possibly on a patchworked ground; the tree/blossom drawing could work in a textured appliqué with large stitch on a finely textured background, or maybe on a tulle netting ground. I could imagine this design on eveningwear, or as a wall hanging.

Paper Manipulation #21, inspired by one layer of Drawing #11

#21 – scalpel cuts; and pierced holes made with needles, pottery tool and scalpel on Japanese paper.

The drawing that inspired this paper manipulation was made up of stylised shapes with different pattern infills (lines, dashes, dots) and I tried to recreate those patterns without outlines, suggesting the shapes of the flower heads. For the pierced areas, the reverse of the paper shows the most texture. The scalpel cut areas were the most successful, giving clear lines that would allow a second layer to show through and they had a bold, graphic feel to them. The paper is drapeable, semi-opaque and has a delicate look and feel. The simple, off-white palette (shown here against a black layer) would be suitable for home decor, or in silk or organza as scarf or blouse fabric.

I will now try adding stitch to some of the paper and plastic manipulations as the next stage in the textile development process.


What have I learnt during this process?

  • using a simple palette at this stage keeps focus on the marks, lines and textures made
  • drawings may suggest further developments
  • the reverse of a piece may be more interesting that the front
  • my first time using the paper cut technique
  • taking away areas of a paper, or using a transparent or translucent paper gives an opportunity for layering, which may be useful when translated to textiles


Websites:- Accessed 19/04/17 Accessed 24/04/17

Part 5: Project 1: Option 3: Floral Compositions

Having looked back over my drawing research and drawings made in previous parts of the course, I looked at images on Pinterest and to find some inspiring drawings of flowers and foliage to inform this stage of the project.

Drawing Inspiration

Source: details about individual artists can be found on my Pinterest boards.

From this research, I can see that layering, mixing types of mark and types of media, simplifying forms and using carefully selected palettes are important for producing these enticing outcomes.

My approach was to use a wide variety of media and techniques for information gathering from the plant source material. The course guide stresses the importance of making new marks and sourcing new colour information to feed through to the development stage, so that was another point to bear in mind.

The source material was also to be varied, to provide interesting drawings to take forward. I selected a bunch of roses, a bunch of tulips and, taking inspiration from Elizabeth Blackadder‘s flower paintings: gathering inspiration from my garden: a chard leaf and views of plum blossom and a wider view of part of the garden.

I experimented with different backgrounds, lighting options and whether or not to include other objects, shown in the collage below are some of the experiments.

Coursework Part 5 collage

Another preparatory exercise was to make a mind map describing the flowers and making some associations.

roses mind map


Gouache paint and chalk on watercolour paper. A3 size.

I wanted to start with something fairly ‘realistic’ and the colour of the roses suggested gouache paint to me as a medium – it’s chalky, opaque colour seemed an apt way of trying to capture the colour palette of the arrangement. I had added in the coffee pot as it made a good contrast to the bright colours, and I selected the sky blue wall as the perfect foil for the colour of the flowers. The colour of the flowers was echoed in the tea-towel and oranges.

I was pleased with the colour palette in this piece – although not identical to the original, I really like this range of hues from all round the colour wheel, with touches of brown and white. I think this looks rather old-fashioned (a quick Google search provides numerous examples of artists painting roses), but it could be simplified and rendered in other media, such as a print on textiles. Roses provoke associations with romance and love. The colour palette perhaps gives it a more modern vibe.

On the downside, the position of the arrangement on the paper was not good – the roses are all cramped up at the top.


Gouache painted colour stripes representing drawing #1.


Felt pen on smooth sketchbook paper.

In this drawing, I concentrated on the pattern and lines found in the flower heads and leaves. I thought that this was quite successful in capturing the pattern made by the petals and could imagine this line drawing layered over a patterned cream or grey background, or in red against a black ground to make a fabric design. Its simplicity means that it could work with a number of colour palettes. The fineness of the paper was perhaps more suited to the subject than the thick watercolour paper.

#3 and #4

#3: Pencil on cartridge paper. A3 size. (Two details shown).

#4: Pigma Micron pen and Aquarelle pencils on cartridge paper. A3 size.

Trying out a different, simpler arrangement, laying the flowers out like scientific specimens. One quick pencil sketch using a mixture of soft and hard lines. The second drawing is a simplified, version accentuating the form and features of the roses. I find that I prefer to make a realistic drawing first and then, having observed the source material closely, I can more easily identify the aspects that need to be included in the simplified version. It is a way of getting familiar with the subject. The simplified version is perhaps suited to illustrative uses, such as greetings cards or wrapping paper. The colour palette is ‘cute’ with pretty pastels.


Pencil and gel pen on cream watercolour paper. A5 with 2.5 x 2.5 cm boxes.

Concentrating on tiny details, identified with a viewfinder. This exercise had been useful in Assignment 1, and I tried to highlight rose features that define the plant (leaf, thorn, petals, sepals etc.) The resulting snapshots provide some interesting patterns that could be developed in stitch. Tiny drawings in flat bright colour might be something to try on another occasion.


Paper, textile, and mixed media, collage on mount board, 40.5 x 27 cm

A first ‘realistic’ attempt at this arrangement. The purple/pink blooms were already twisting downwards away from the main bunch. I used suggestions of walls and a table for the background with the painted lace fabric giving a cottage/’shabby chic’ feel to the piece. I also tried printing a background with lace, but that didn’t work well with watercolour, maybe with acrylic or oil paint it would have done. The stems alone are fascinating in the way that they twist springily out from the bunch and could probably be represented by couched yarn or similar. The colour palette of bright colours against a muted background is, I feel, successful. I can imagine these working well in a quilt or wall hanging. The placement of this arrangement on the page was more successful than the first painted roses drawing.

tulips mind map


Wax on Khadi paper, size A4

This drawing explores the waxy quality of the tulips with wax applied with various tools to the paper. The drawing concentrates on the silhouette of the flowers and foliage. I experimented with pattern to represent the jug and background. The leaves and flower heads worked well with this media, but I’m not so sure about the rest. Using wax means that the paper becomes translucent when held up to the light where wax has fully penetrated the paper. This might be useful for free-hanging work. I like the monotone simplicity of this palette: shades of grey give it a subtle and sophisticated air – like a damask curtain fabric. One possible future development is to work on textile using a batik method, and to introduce colour.



Felt pens/POSCA pens on ‘marker paper’. A5.

Trying out a new type of smooth, coated paper, ideal for felt pens. It has a satiny sheen to it that suits the shiny texture of the plants. I used lines to try to capture the lines on the surface of the petals and leaves, and to show the way the light gleamed on them. The flower heads worked well in this drawing, and I can imagine using embroidery or machine stitch to recreate this linear pattern on textiles. I find the pink and orange of the flower at top left to be a particularly pleasing colour combination that would work well in fashion accessories such as scarves.


Gouache painted colour stripes representing the palette found in drawing #8.


Chalk and nail varnish on watercolour paper. A5 size.

It occurred to me that nail varnish had the right kind of colour and shine to it to represent tulip petals, so this was a quick experiment to see what it would look like. The viscous liquid is hard to work with, which means that only a rough approximation can be achieved. The shine is apparent on the finished drawing, but the smell of the chemicals is horrible, so I would probably not repeat the process. Thinking about it, one could probably make a whole picture using make-up (eye shadow, pencils, lip stick, blusher etc): a thought to bear in mind if the subject matter is appropriate.


Acrylic paint on tracing paper. A4 size.

I wanted to try a close-up view of one of the ‘blown’ tulips looking at the details in the centre of the flower (inspired by the work of Georgia O’Keeffe), and using thick acrylic paint to try to capture the ridged, succulent petals in texture. The paper was really too thin for this type of paint (it wrinkled), but its waxy translucent quality did feel like a good fit for the subject matter. The simple colour palette of shades of red with touches of black and white was dramatic and could inspire eveningwear in the fashion world, or accessories such as an embossed, faux leather handbag. The thick acrylic paint did provide the most accurate rendition of the texture and weight of the petals.


Gouache painted colour stripes representing drawing #10.


Ink on watercolour paper; pencil on tracing paper; POSCA pen on cellophane. A4 size.

In this drawing I was exploring ways of layering marks and patterns (inspired by the work of Leisa Rich) and using the tulips to inform the created marks. Another link is Escher’s Three Worlds print in which a reflection of trees, the surface of a pond and the fish in the depths are shown. In my somewhat less accomplished piece, the eye is drawn in to notice the main top layer, and then the more faded and delicate marks beneath.

I think that this area is ripe for further experimentation: introducing colour, transparency and hidden areas; using cutaway areas; introducing texture. This could lead to dramatic artwork, ideas for printed and embellished textiles and free hanging layers which might be useful in home decor.

#12 and #13

Graphite block on cartridge paper; chalk and POSCA pen on Khadi paper. A4.

Exploring line in these two drawings of a plum tree. The first, graphite drawing concentrates on the lines and patterns made by the branches; the second introduces the additional layer of emerging blossom. I like the simplicity of these drawings and feel that the linear pattern of the branches could feed into textiles as a background pattern, or a close-up section (example shown at top left, above) could be developed into an abstract art work by itself. Black lines on a white ground look striking and austere. The introduction of blue and white gives the palette a Japanese feel.


Gouache painted colour stripes representing drawing #13.


Mixed media on cartridge paper. A1.

Inspired by Alicia Galer‘s wonderful drawings, brimming with mixtures of marks, I decided to try a distant view of part of our garden (most of the plants I have drawn so far have been in mid to close views). This also showed plants in a natural state rather than arranged in a vase, and was worked on a larger size of paper. I enjoyed making this drawing – using which ever medium and technique seemed suitable to the subject (eg, felt pen for the spiky chives, blended chalk for distant or indistinct foliage, sponge printed paint for the new leaves; splodges of thick white paint applied with a bunch of fine wooden dowels for the blossom). This method generated a variety of types of mark, including overlapping areas, that could be taken forward for development into stitch. The palette is restricted to greens, browns, and grey with a touch of yellow.

#15 and #16

#15 Aquarelle pencils and felt pen on cartridge paper. A5.

#16 Oil pastels on cartridge paper. A5.

Comparing fast and slow study of the subject: the Aquarelle drawing took an hour or more, the oil pastel drawing was completed in a few minutes. The first drawing captured more of the succulent texture of the leaf and stem, but there is something lively and recognisable about the quickly-made drawing. The colour palette of the first drawing is one that I like: cherry red, muted green, and purple with white highlights. The leaf quickly dried out and flattened, which is something to bear in mind when using source material that can degrade.


Gouache painted colour stripes representing drawing #15.


Photograph, metallic thread, beads on glossy photographic paper. 15 x 10 cm.

Inspired by the work of María Aparicio Puentes, whose work I had seen in some previous research, I took a macro photograph of a willow catkin and added stitch and bead embellishment over the top. I considered quite carefully the amount of stitch and the placement of the stitch, as well as the colour palette to use: opting for sparkly pink and silver to add an interesting extra layer of texture and contrast to the image, without overpowering it. The lines echo and extend the stamen and perform the function of highlighting the structure and pattern of the catkin.

I liked this technique and the outcome, and can imagine using it in collage work or as a way to add a layer of interest and texture to 2-D images. The colour palette of soft brown, yellow, white and pink with a touch of green is very Spring-like and delicate: the sparkle evokes a frosty morning.


Gouache painted colour stripes representing image #17.


What have I learnt in this Project?

  • To make a quick outline to check the position of the subject on the page.
  • Begin with a ‘realistic’ drawing and use the information gathered to generate more simplified images.
  • Layering marks can give depth and interest to a piece and should be translatable into exciting stitch and textiles.
  • Mixing media and using colours and marks appropriate to the subject was a freeing way to work and generated interesting material for further development.



Websites:- Accessed 14/04/17 Accessed 14/04/17 Accessed 14/04/17 Accessed 14/04/17 Accessed 14/04/17 Accessed 14/04/17


Part 5: Project 1: Reflection: Stronger and Weaker Points of My Visual Research

Having reviewed my drawing and mark making work so far on the course, these are my thoughts on what worked and what I need to practise and improve upon.

Stronger Points

I felt that I had been experimental with regards to the range of media used (traditional paints, charcoal, pencil, ink, felt pens, etc, and less traditional: mud, mown grass, slug trails and flour, flower seeds, glue, etc); tools (such as feathers, a boot, fingers, paintbrushes, a bunch of sticks, etc); and the types and sizes of grounds that I had worked on (3-D surfaces, digital screens, and everything from tissue paper to corrugated cardboard, 1″ square drawings to A1 size – larger for the lawn drawing).

I had explored various lighting options (daylight, to a dark room lit with a faint red light) and compositions (extreme close-ups to full views of the arrangement, drawings focusing on form, outline, texture, pattern, colour); and techniques (spoken word, digital drawing, blind contour drawing, blind touch drawing, both fast, and more detailed drawings, simple, printed images, abstract and more representational drawings, hand sewn and machine sewn, collage, etc).

Weaker Points

I did not always link the observed source to an appropriate ground and/or media.

Looking back at the drawings from Part 1, some of them were rather similar. This was partly due to the museum only allowing pencil next to the exhibits, but some of them were made later, at home – lots of pencil, charcoal, and ink on white paper – rather safe and boring, however, I may still find this a good starting point!

As well as using white or black grounds, Cari recommends using more subtle combinations, such as white media on grey grounds, which I have taken on board in more recent coursework.

Including more variety in the compositions is certainly something I need to aim for (close-ups, small thumbnails to test compositions, perhaps including some background or other objects to give context).

There was a lack of variety in marks made within one drawing. Standing back to get an overview of work in progress and looking at the scale and type of marks I have used needs more attention. Using different densities of mark and a mix of bold/strong/large marks with small/quiet/delicate marks combined in one drawing is something I need to work on.

The quantity of sketchbook work, developmental (eg, testing different compositions), analytical and evaluative drawing needs to increase, as does drawing for proposing potential developments of the work.

I have made a summary of reminder notes, covering drawing, in this article, which I will refer to in the forthcoming projects.

Coursework Part 4: Project 1: Exploring Lines: Exercise 4.1 Yarns Inspired By Stitch and Marks

I began this Exercise by looking back over the work from Parts 1 and 2. I selected two pieces for inspiration:-

These two pieces are a stitched paper sample and textile piece inspired by the grass drawing that I made for Part 1. The piece on the left has tufted paper texture, French knots, seed stitch, wired bead ‘flowers’, paper cord opened out into ‘leaves’ and some looped threads, which I had made to represent ‘seedlings’. The textile piece on the right had knots in three scales, set onto a translucent cotton, a corduroy fabric and a textile constructed from a variety of fabric scraps, net and yarn.

Thinking of terms inspired by these two pieces that might inform my yarns, I made a couple of mind maps.


I made some visual analysis drawings of the source material, concentrating on areas that I found interesting, and imagining the sorts of textures my created yarns could have. I started with some all white drawings, focused on texture, then gradually introduced some colour inspired by the colour palette of the source material.

The next task was to assemble some possible materials. I decided to limit myself to red, white and black initially, but to possibly return to the colour of the original grass drawing (green!) for one of the yarns.


My approach was to start with some of the simpler ideas, with a view to possibly combining some of them at a later stage. Referring to the source material and the drawings I had made, I picked out the materials that I felt best represented them, in colour, texture and ‘feel’. The overall look of the palette is quite dramatic, and matt, (apart from the silver wire, and some netting). The mood of the pieces are a bit wild and out of control, with words such as ‘tufted’, ‘springy’, ‘twisting’ and ‘knotted’ coming to mind.

I decided to keep a notebook with technical jottings, ideas for future developments, and samples: [having just read my latest feedback, however, I will start to keep the material samples in a separate file].


After two evenings of experimentation, I had made six 30 cm yarn samples that I was happy with. Another two were rejected.


I will discuss them below in the order in which they were made.



Materials: white yarn, white cotton thread.

Construction: random, overlapping loops of yarn were hand sewn to a central strand of yarn.

Handle and appearance: soft, floppy, fairly flat.

Possible variations: machine sew, change fibre, colour, size of loops, scale, density, shape and size of loops, cut the loops, layer with other fibres, add embellishments.

Thoughts and ideas: this simple construction gave some interesting lines against a dark background. It was inspired by the looped black thread in the original paper/thread sample. The resulting yarn reminded of 1970s frilly shirts and cuffs, and flatworms, seaweed, ferns, dolls’ hair. Might be good combined with another yarn of a different material and texture.



Materials: white linen thread, white wool/acrylic felt

Construction: narrow rectangles of felt were cut and threaded onto the linen thread, which was knotted at 1 cm intervals during construction.

Handle and appearance: soft, floppy, springy (felt), fairly flat

Possible variations: different threads, different colours of felt and thread, more felt pieces, longer felt pieces, other textiles, different shapes (eg squares circles, random shapes), added embellishments.

Thoughts and ideas: another simple construction giving irregular lines. I liked the way the felt shapes did not lie parallel to each other. It gave the yarn pattern with variation. I think this one represents the original work well: matt appearance, repeated lines, plant-like, but also has a more-regular manmade appearance. Possible use in textile jewellery.


#3 (small sample) seen at left above

Materials: white embroidery thread (6 strands)

Construction: 8 cm lengths of embroidery thread were tied at 1 cm intervals to a central thread of the same material.

Handle and appearance: soft, flimsy, insubstantial, thready

Possible variations: different threads, different colours, other textiles, added embellishments.

Thoughts and ideas: inspired by the knots in the original textile piece, but I could tell straight away that I didn’t like this sample (its feeble appearance did not look strong or wiry enough), so back to the drawing board…



Materials: white cotton textile (re-purposed pillowcase)

Construction: 4.5 cm width of white cotton textile was folded in half lengthways and snipped from the cut edges to within about 5 mm of the other side. Textile is then twisted.

Handle and appearance: soft, feathery, floppy. Repetition with variation, wild and a bit scruffy.

Possible variations: different textiles, different colours, wider or narrower cut sections, start with a wider or narrower textile strip, tear instead of cutting, adding wiring to make it poseable, pre-treating the fabric with paint or starch to give it more body, intertwine with other yarns.

Thoughts and ideas: an improvement on #3, and represents the source material better in its solidity and grass-like appearance. Also reminds me of fir trees, tinsel, feathers and feather boas. A bit boring by itself, but may combine well with other textures.

#5 (small sample) (Image at right of #3 above)

Materials: white satin ribbon, black cotton thread

Construction: random French knots were hand sewn onto the ribbon

Handle and appearance: shiny, soft, bobbly, a bit gritty, fairly smooth on reverse, malleable.

Possible variations: different textiles, different colours, wider or narrower strip, sewn onto jersey textile, then gently pulled to form cord (not sure if that would work with the stitch in place, maybe stretch it first).

Thoughts and ideas: inspired by the area of French knots in the paper and stitch artwork, and the drawing made subsequently. I liked the stitch but not the ground textile in this small sample. The latter was too shiny and flat-edged.


Materials: white cotton textile, black cotton thread

Construction: the cotton textile was torn into a narrow strip, random French knots were hand sewn onto it

Handle and appearance: matt, soft, bobbly, ‘seedy’, fairly smooth on reverse, flexible, flat, ragged. Different textures and patterns on front and reverse.

Possible variations: different textile, different colours, wider or narrower strip, sewn onto jersey cord, different densities of stitch, using a regular pattern, using other stitches, overlapping one or more variety of stitch/thread.

Thoughts and ideas: this represented the seeding of new ground in the original artwork, and I felt that this continued the theme of random sparks of life appearing on the damaged ground. The rough edges of the fragile-looking strip and the matt appearance were true to the source material. The simple design of this yarn could be combined successfully with others.




Materials: red tulle net, red cotton quilting thread, black and white glass beads

Construction: a strip of red tulle had zig zagging lines of hand stitch with threaded beads sewn onto it, before it was rolled and sewn into a tube.

Handle and appearance: floppy, slightly weighty (the beads), knobbly to touch, yet some appearance of lightness, suspension and transparency.

Possible variations: different textile or material (clear plastic?, tubing (hard to sew), different colours, different scales, different densities of beading, using a regular pattern, using other embellishments, adding further stitch or wrapping or enclosures, stuffing the centre tube.

Thoughts and ideas: I felt that the colour and beading represented both the original source material and the drawing I made. This yarn had possibilities for further development. It has a somewhat nautical feel (nets and floats), but the colour makes me think of burlesque, however, the suspended beads remind me of a starry sky, or atomic structures, or particles suspended in a vortex, or fungal growth, (the latter would link back to the original theme).



Materials: red cotton textile, white paper cord, black cotton thread

Construction: a strip of red textile was frayed along the length, until only a thin connection in the centre was left (like a feather), this was twisted and tied with knotted white paper cord, then bound with black thread. (The last two operations would have been better reversed!) This yarn has a 5 cm repeating pattern.

Handle and appearance: flexible and light, feathery with added springy texture; repetitions with variation. Dramatic, unusual appearance, with a variety of textures.

Possible variations: start with a tufty yarn rather than making the feathery texture, or bind bunches of fibres to a central strand; vary colours, length of pattern repeats, scale, length of tied elements and length of bound areas.

Thoughts and ideas: labour-intensive to make, but I liked this yarn a lot. It has a dramatic, ‘dangerous’ appearance – I think I associated it with poison darts, the binding on arrows, or hand-tied fishing flies. It feels like something an Amazonian tribesman might wear. While there is pattern and repetition, the ties and variety in the frayed threads give enough variation to make it interesting. I think this texture represents the source material well, and I may take this forward for further development.

At this point in proceeings, I decided to spend more time on this exercise, as I felt there was more exploration to be had!


Materials: silver beading wire, red glass beads

Construction: a double length of beading wire was twisted together and 12.75 cm lengths of wire were twisted around the central stem at 5 cm intervals. Red glass beads were twisted onto the tips of the cross pieces.

Handle and appearance: stark, plant- or fungi-like structure. Wiry (!), malleable, gives added structure when combined with the softer yarns. Poseable.

Possible variations: play with scale (fine filaments with tiny beads; thick cable with large embellishments); vary the spacing and density of side branches; make into a coral or branch like structure with many stems coming from the central one.

Thoughts and ideas: the wire was unpleasant to work with, but would be worth persisting with to make a flexible structure that could be given many forms and structures. The combination of this yarn with other pieces gave variety in the materials and did remind me of plants or fungi growth, linking back to the source material. It seemed to be a good method for mounting small points of colour in amongst a densely tufted background.


Materials: black paper cord, red 6-strand embroidery thread

Construction: 18 cm lengths of paper cord were bound to a central strand of the same material at 5 cm intervals. The binding threads were knotted and left with loose ends as an added texture. Areas of the paper cord were unravelled to make leaf-like structures.

Handle and appearance: very light weight, organic appearance, plant-like, vine-like, sinuous.

Possible variations: change the colours, scale up or down; use ‘leaves’ made from stiffened textile and wire; vary the spacing and density of ‘leaves’; add embellishments like ‘berries’ or ‘flowers’.

Thoughts and ideas: this yarn was inspired by a technique used in the stitched paper sample, but was given more regularity with the repeated shapes. The tied element is functional as well as referencing the colour palette and mood of the source material. It has a hint of exoticism, with a touch of the poisonous about it (the black and red colour scheme). I liked this yarn for its simplicity and repeated pattern with variation. I could imagine this being added to fashion clothing and accessories, or being made into jewellery. The importance of joining different types of materials together is becoming apparent with the more complex forms. Trying to find a method that is appropriate, functional, and complements, or, as in this case, gives an added dimension to, the outcome.

#11 – #16


Materials: black or white acrylic gesso paint, string, cotton textile, vegetable netting, hairy yarn, tulle netting

Construction: the various materials were rolled, twisted, knotted, looped or left as they were, then given whole or partial coats of gesso. Most pieces were hung to dry: the looped yarn was left flat on plastic to dry, with the loops each opened to the desired shape, and it retained large areas of gesso, which was flat and smooth on the reverse.

Handle and appearance: in general, the gesso makes the material stiffer and less flexible. The knotted cotton textile remained flexible in the unpainted areas, as one would expect.

Possible variations: coat with wax for a translucent look, or use other types of paint, varnish or plaster; include added materials such as grit or glitter; add stitch or other media after painting.

Thoughts and ideas: I tried this because I wanted to change the colours of a couple of the materials I had on hand: the hairy yarn was changed from green to black (and resembled a raggedly-drawn ink line), but the other materials retained some or all of their original hues. The coated, knotted string and hairy yarn were two experiments that I felt matched my original drawings. The other pieces hold possibilities for use in other work, such as artworks where some structure is beneficial, or where a partially hidden/revealed aspect is required. The looped yarn looks frosty and ragged, which was an interesting texture to bear in mind.


Materials: red, chenille yarn (?cotton or mixed fibres), linen thread

Construction: I had come up with this texture in one of my drawings, albeit more regular. I puzzled over recreating this one, but came up with an inner structure of linen thread with tied crosswise pieces of thread with knots in both loose ends, at 1 cm intervals. I then made a French knitted structure over the top. Some of the knotted threads were knitted into the structure and others were hooked through after knitting was complete.

Handle and appearance: this has a soft, ticklish feel and an exotic, alien appearance.

Possible variations: both materials could be finer or thicker; different colours; scaled up or down, the protruding threads could be longer or shorter and could have embellishments added.

Thoughts and ideas: This was definitely a favourite. I liked the contrast between the soft, velvety knitted yarn and the spiky, irregular linen thread. I had imagined the threads coming through at regular intervals, but they behaved otherwise, and I think I prefer the random placings. It has potential in textile jewellery and art work: its strange appearance suggesting alien or deep-sea life forms, which feels true to the spirit of the ‘wild’ aspect of the source materials.


I felt that these were the most successful yarns that I made, in terms of representing the source materials and my drawings. I will take them forward as possible inspiration for the next three, longer lengths of yarn.

I made some more visual analysis drawings of the chosen yarns, considering what further developments could be made.

I imagined #2 (threaded felt with knots) with larger/thicker pieces of felt interspersed with large beads; or threaded with irregular shapes; or clusters of felt pieces separated with bound areas; or lengthening the threaded on strips and adding some knotted threads.

#7 (beaded net tube) could be tied at intervals instead of being left as a tube; or the net could be stuffed with a wispy materials and have large beads separating the stuffed ovals.

#8 (tufted frayed fabric, bound and decorated with knots) could be given a playful twist and could be made from artificial grass with ladybirds on it; or could be scaled up and made from a thicker (plaited cotton) strand decorated with painted twigs tied on with ?plastic ties and separated by large beads, knotted in place. The direction of the twigs could be varied; it could be made from a feather boa in a larger scale (although I am not happy at the thought of using real feathers).

#17 (French knitted tube with linen thread knots). Well, I was quite happy with this one as it was, but I thought it could be scaled up if I could make a larger circular ‘knitting doll’ and use something like fabric strips for the yarn, and paper cord instead of linen thread for the knotted protrusions.

#11 (knotted, coated string) could be scaled down and made with embroidery thread with wrapped areas separating the knots; or it could be made from yarn with multiple, random and some overlapping knots. In my research, I saw that Jean Draper had made some yarn from already wrapped thread or yarn that was then knotted.

#10 (leafy paper cord) could be made in different colours, white or green, for example and could be scaled up or down and could have embellishments added.

#1B For my first 100 cm yarn, I picked the French knitted one and decided to proceed as outlined above, exploring scale.


I made a larger French knitting device from a tin can, pencils glued to it and held in place with rubber bands.

Materials: assorted re-purposed cotton and cotton mix jersey textile strips; paper cord

Construction: I proceeded as for the smaller version, but using a central core of a metre long length of paper cord, tied with cross pieces at 5 cm intervals and knotted on the loose ends. To represent the red background of the original source textile, I decided to use a mixture of repurposed jersey clothing (deeming the stretchiness necessary for knitting with), cut into strips (starting with the surreptitious acquisition of my husband’s worn red tee-shirt!).

Handle and appearance: this has a soft, heavy, flexible feel with springy texture from the cotton cord. The appearance is monstrous and ugly*.

Possible variations: as well as the variations mentioned above: [both materials could be finer or thicker; different colours; scaled up or down, the protruding threads could be longer or shorter and could have embellishments added.] I thought that the larger piece could have additional stitch added, or could be made from a more frayed texture of fabric strip. Finer, less stretchy fabric strips would result in a net-like structure allowing the viewer to see inside the knitted tube.

Thoughts and ideas: *[Having recently read fellow student, Julie’s, reflection on Tackling the ugly, I feel that I should elaborate on that word!]. By ugly I mean that it evokes a disgust reaction because it looks both unsightly in its uneven, coarse construction, and also because of its worm- or snake-like appearance in shape and colour, perhaps also the hairiness. Ugh! I found the smaller version (seen in two images above for comparison) rather ‘cute’, like a little sea creature, but this one is so large that it feels threatening. This may be just the effect one is looking for in an art work! It has the potential to be wired or sewn into different configurations (coiled, looping, 3-D spiral, etc), or dangled from the ceiling.


Construction: based on #8 and the subsequent drawing, I decided to make an enlarged version using some unusual materials. I clipped dozens of willow twigs from a tree in our garden, then painted them black with acrylic gesso (seen above left, drying). I had considered leaving them their attractive natural colours, but decided to stick to my chosen colour palette on this occasion. For the supporting ‘rope’ I considered using another natural material: twisted golden hop stems and I made a test structure with five twined stems, but decided that it looked too ‘wreath-like’ and inflexible, so I made a braided structure from three torn white cotton strips, which referred back to the original sewn paper piece in colour and ‘ragged’ texture. I felt that its softness and colour contrasted well with the spiky black twigs. I spotted a bracelet, composed of huge black beads, in a charity shop and disassembled it to use for this ‘yarn’. The knotted aspect was again added with my old friend, springy paper cord, and for further texture and colour contrast, I tied the bunches of twigs in place with red and black plastic lacing (red side showing).

Handle and appearance: this is heavy, semi flexible with contrasting textures: spiky, round, hard, shiny beads, soft, slightly ragged textile, springy knotted areas, and stiff, shiny plastic cord. It is single sided rather than viewable from all sides.

Possible variations: an all-natural version would give a more gentle and harmonious appearance; smaller or larger scale; twigs could be bound all around a central rope and beads with large holes threaded on to give a structure that could be viewed from all angles. The twigs could be all facing one direction, or overlapping; different colour palettes such as all pastels would give the piece a more ‘friendly’ appearance.

Thoughts and ideas: I liked the contrasts in colour and textures, for example, the bundles of twigs tied with red plastic cord. There is a touch of witches’ brooms to the look of the bundled twigs, which conjures images of magic and danger. I’m not sure that this is really a yarn as it would be difficult to knit or sew with, so I will have to call it a ‘linear concept’! It did have a feeling of spiky, springy energy and the twigs related to the theme of ‘re-wilding’. Using a mixture of media was interesting, and something I shall return to. As for potential uses:- interior furnishings, such as blinds or lampshades; or assemblages for artworks.


I had never seen artificial grass close-up before, so I was surprised to find it quite realistic-looking and constructed by tufting through a backing material. Once I had studied the construction, I decided to cut it into strips to give it flexibility and tried some possible manipulations (trials shown above).

Construction: After the sampling shown above, I cut the backing to as thin a sliver as I could while leaving the stitches in place. Noticing the directional tufting, I placed the lengths of backing together, with the tufting all pointing in the same direction. I glued them to a central yarn, made from three thickenesses of plied yarn. These were  overstitched for strength (the glue would not have held on its own) with a thick vintage embroidery thread in green. White paper cord was knotted in place at 10 cm intervals, with ladybird buttons attached. I had considered adding ‘flowers’ but decided to keep it simple, to make the grass and ladybirds the main features.

Handle and appearance: this is quite heavy, semi flexible with contrasting textures: tufty, springy, stiffer in the centre where the backing material meets. The appearance was a big disappointment to me, screaming ‘Christmas’, thanks to the red, white and green colour palette, and the grass texture resembling an artificial Christmas tree (they are no doubt made of the same material!). This is a single-sided linear concept.

Possible variations: cutting the artificial grass into smaller beads and threading them onto a yarn might work better, or binding tufts of the material without the backing, to the yarn. Including flowers, butterflies and bees to mimic a meadow would make a prettier version.

Thoughts and ideas: This was supposed to be a fun, playful idea, that referenced the original ‘grass drawing‘ from which the two pieces I used as source material were derived. I think the variations mentioned above might have given less of a tinsel-effect. I had thought of using enormous insects on the ‘yarn’, but at £5 each, they proved too expensive, but with those and some exotic-looking flowers, it might have worked better, as there would have been more colour variation that is not associated with Christmas. The variations mentioned above might be useful for quirky jewellery or fashion accessories.


I have learnt:-

  • That drawing can bring forth multiple ideas for yarn designs based on the source material and helps to focus the selection of appropriate media and colour palettes.
  • Playing with the materials and combinations of media can spark new ideas.
  • Breaking the forms down into simple linear constructions can provide a huge variety of yarns. Some of these can be combined at a later stage.
  • Regular patterns with in-built variations; and those with random placings of repeated elements are the most interesting outcomes (to me).
  • The type of ‘lines’ created and the chosen colour palette can create quite different moods in a yarn.
  • Scale can be varied from tiny and ethereal to huge and bold. Components and repeats need to be scaled up and down, too, to maintain good proportion.
  • Joining materials is important for functionality and offers the opportunity for adding dimensions such as texture, colour and movement.
  • Overlaying patterns can add to the richness of a yarn.
  • The order of construction can make the process easier or more difficult.
  • Some flexibility in your design ideas is required for overcoming obstacles, and for making use of ‘happy accidents’.
  • Playing with scale and the colour palette of a yarn can have drastic and sometimes unforeseen effects on the outcome!



Sketchbook: A Gift of Yarn

I received a wonderful gift from my friend Margaret this week: a bag of assorted yarns: (they will be a great resource for my next practical exercises on linear media).


I picked out some with different textures to make a small arrangement for drawing. I limited myself to assorted white media on a grey khadi paper ground. This meant that I would have to use different types of lines and marks to represent the different textures of the yarns.

I used different, and I hoped, ‘appropriate’ media and marks for the type of yarn I was trying to draw: ink applied with a barbecue stick for the scratchy/hairy-looking turquoise yarn; gel pen for the grey, crimped yarn; gouache paint applied with a brush for the flowing lines of the circular profile shiny yarn and softer, looser marks for the soft, wavy yarn in the centre; the POSCA watercolour pen for the shiny, flat yarn at the front, and mixed chalk/pencil/gel pen marks for the yarn at the back left, comprising mixed fibres.

It resulted in some variety in the marks and lines: I particularly liked the soft painted lines of the central yarn. The shiny one was the least successful – perhaps something like wax might have represented the gleaming quality better. Anyway, some useful visual research on yarns to lead into the next part of the coursework!


Sketchbook: Watercolour, and Carbon Pencil Drawings

Two more pages from my sketchbook: you can guess what my New Year’s resolution is!


Walking Boots (carbon drawing pencil)

Thinking about possessions being autobiographical: I decided to draw my walking books since I wear them every day for walking the dog.

I’m currently reading Hockney & Gayford, 2016 and was interested in David Hockney’s observations about Chinese artists, who perfect their art by making as few lines as possible to represent an object or scene. I drew the rough outlines of these boots, then spent quite a lot of time on the right boot with shading etc, then tried to work quickly on the left boot. A lot more practise needed before I can use a few strokes to represent an object, though.


Make-up Palette with Reflection, and Lipstick (pencil, watercolour)

Another ‘autobiographical’ item. I started painting this during daylight, but by the time it got dark, I realised I had four light sources, hence the crazy shadows (another thing I was paying more attention to, following Hockey’s comments about shadows giving objects volume.) Recognisable rather than accurate is the verdict on these two pieces.

Yet more wisdom from David Hockney comes to mind when I think of his words about drawing and painting, and the layers of ‘seeing’ that the artist uses when making a picture – both over time and what he or she has noticed and given importance to, when looking at an object. For example in the piece above, I hadn’t noticed the reflection when I first set the objects out, then I became quite interested in what I could see in the mirror: a tiny view of the room behind me and a bit of me in my jumper.

My approach to sketchbook work at present is to use a variety of media and draw anything and everything that interests me. I work on loose sheets of paper of different sizes and types and colours for experimental purposes, or because it seems appropriate to the subject.



Hockney, D. and Gayford, M. (2016) A history of pictures: From the cave to the computer screen. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson.

Assignment 2: Response to Formative Feedback

Following my feedback from Cari, I have returned to my work from Assignment 2 to make some follow-up, visual evaluation drawings of Pieces 2 and 3.

Piece 2

Cari suggested that I make a repeat design and a simpler design by focusing on selected elements of the original.

The top circle on the original piece featured a layer with seeds on it and a damaged, blackened layer above, which had holes in it revealing the layer below.

For the first drawing, I decided to make a simpler, all white paper manipulation concentrating on repeating those elements, and to make three sample ‘repairs’, which were shown in the second circle of the original piece.

The top layer of paper was crumpled and torn. The underneath layer had holes pierced to represent the ‘seeds’ in the original piece (piercing from the front gave a clean, smooth hole; piercing from the reverse gave each hole a raised, ragged edge, which I preferred for its tactile quality). The three samples were made using Swedish pattern paper strips:

1 A rectangle of holes was punched and a darning/woven pattern used. Ends were taped to the reverse.

2 A ring of holes was punched and a random repair stitch, with knots on the surface, was used.

3 No holes were punched, paper strips were sewn through needle holes in a star pattern; knots on the reverse. The paper strip became more cord-like as it was pulled through the narrow openings.

I preferred option 3 of the sample areas. The smaller holes and more rounded profile of the paper ‘thread’ made it feel more like traditional sewing. I felt that overall, the drawing made a simple statement about ‘damage and repair’ that could be about the environment; or an analogy for the human condition: ‘hurt and healing’, or ‘wounding words/actions and forgiveness’, ‘war and reconcilliation’.

The second area of Piece 2 that I found interesting and ripe for further investigation, was in the third circle where I had needle punched white wool yarn through the background fabric, using different densities and different lengths of stitch. I used white ink, pastel and coloured pencil for the following drawing.

I thought of three methods/variations of representing the design:-

1 Needle-punched yarn: sparsely punched yarn centre, with red, wiry inserts (either tied stitches or wired beads); densely punched and longer, uncut loops surrounding the centre, getting longer the further away the stitches are from the centre.

2 Similar to 1, but with cut loops and no red additions.

3 This I imagined being hooked from fabric strips: sparsely in the centre, tightly in the surrounding area, then prodded, long strips in all other areas.

I liked the potential of the third option. The areas could also be reversed, so that the centres were the long, prodded areas and the surrounding areas were the sparsely hooked ones. In fact that would probably work just as well, and would be faster to make. I may return to this idea in future.

Piece 3

There were quite a lot of variations that I could imagine arising from this piece. The first I considered was a repeat design, with the stitch repeated in small areas over the surface (rather than as just three areas in the original).

The drawing on the left above is a multi-media drawing, based on the original colours. I thought that the areas could be separate and randomly spaced and positioned, or overlapping (drawing 2 above), or could be precisely spaced and grid-like. They could also be any shape…

This drawing looks at using ‘island’ or organic shapes with a more naturalistic colour scheme. The centres have different marks to represent the concrete/barren areas, and the same for the surrounding borders, with a mixture of paints and felt pens for the ‘wild’ areas. I liked the idea of random shapes and this idea could be stitched or hooked/needle punched. Again, the textured areas could be reversed.

Next, I considered a very simplified version that would consist entirely of stitch on something like a grey linen textile. I used some lovely Khadi paper with white gel pen and ink.

I liked the small organic patches of marks, that reminded my of lichen or bacteria growing on a petri dish, but was not happy with the ‘wild area’, bolder marks. The heart shapes were meant to represent two leaves and the whole effect is too cartoony compared with the more delicate areas. Probably simpler, bolder straight lines or crossed lines or twisting, root-like lines, perhaps over a wash of white paint, would have been more in keeping. The background could be prepared first then have the small, delicate areas cut out and glued over the top, or cut and inserted in the case of a textile piece.

Having been reading up on textile history lately in the following books:- (Dupont-Auberville, Harris, and Auberville, 1989) and (Harris, 1993) and on knitted textiles in (Tellier-Loumagne, Black, and Black, 2005), and fabrics by Rubelli in Issue 73 of Selvedge, I have seen many inspiring textures created in luxurious textiles past and present. A small sample below.

This fed into the idea of a repeated textile pattern inspired by the Pieces I had made for Assignment 2. There are, of course, endless variations of shape colour, design, fibres used, which areas are raised/translucent/flat/shiny etc etc. I imagined the drawing below turned into a fabric with sheer golden-beige background with raised velvet areas with differing heights of pile for the different areas of the shapes and dots. Or perhaps as a knitted textile with raised areas, all in one colour (see examples above, bottom right).



This revision and extension of my work for Assignment 2 has been useful in eliciting some new ideas, and has opened up possible areas for future work. It seems a very useful approach for assessing existing work and developing new work. I will try to form the habit of drawing and sample making for new work.

Regarding the drawings above: I felt that the drawing for further hooked/prodded pieces was interesting. I also like the simplified, pure white stitch on a grey textile idea, and the use of a more naturalistic colour scheme with organic shapes.



Dupont-Auberville, M., Harris, J. and Auberville, M.. (1989) Classic textile designs: Fifty plates, in gold, silver and colours comprising upwards of 1, 000 various styles of ancient, mediæval and modern designs of textile fabrics with explanatory descriptions and a general introduction. London: Bracken Books.

Harris, J. (1993) Five Thousand years of textiles. Edited by Jennifer Harris. 2nd edn. London: British Museum Press in association with the Whitworth Art Gallery and the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Tellier-Loumagne, F., Black, S. and Black, Y. (2005) The art of knitting: Inspirational stitches, textures and surfaces. London: Thames & Hudson.


Mann, P. (2016) ‘Reflected Glory: The Shimmering Fabrics of Rubelli’, Selvedge (November) Issue 73, pp. 56–61.

Websites:- Accessed 11/11/16